Killer fashion, the dark side of our history of glamor

As fashion month gets into its stride, will the industry’s dark side
upstage the glamor? Will PETA stage protests outside the shows of designers
still stuck on using fur? Will Extinction Rebellion make headlines
emphasizing the damage our industry continues to inflict on the planet?
Currently the plight of the fashion industry’s “victims” forms a critical
part of runway reports. History records that the term “fashion victim” was
first coined by Oscar de la Renta to describe those branded or logo-laden
hypebeasts who simply must have the latest sneaker collab or
wait-listed handbag. These same individuals might swooningly describe
Jacquemus’s teeny Chiquito or Bottega Veneta’s Pouch as “to die for.” But
fashion’s dance with death isn’t always so playful and our industry’s dark
side hasn’t always been so openly addressed. Historically fashion is strewn
with hidden victims, silent casualties of society’s most decadent
desires.

Mad Hatters

Not simply a character in 1865’s Alice in Wonderland by Lewis
Carroll, mad hatters were those who fashioned hats for respectable society
gentlemen in the 1730s. Made from rabbit fur which could be transformed
into felt with a dab of mercury, the hats were perfectly safe for the
wearer whose chapeau interior was lined with silk and exterior coated with
shellac. Not so lucky were the makers whose afflictions included shrinking
gums, swollen tongues, damaged lips, convulsions and paranoia, the result
of toxic poisoning.

Tortoiseshell

A staple of sunglasses associated with style icons such as Jackie O, the
material tortoiseshell used to be exactly as it sounds. From the underbelly
of a rare sea turtle, it was transparent and durable for jewelry and
accessories, reaching utmost popularity for combs decorating wealthy
Victorians’ hair. Eventually it was replaced by an early plastic,
celluloid, which was less dangerous to tortoises, but the tiniest flame
nearby rendered the combs explosive.

Radium

In 1903 Nobel Prize-winning physicist, Marie Curie, discovered radium
which became known for its miraculous curative properties. Companies rushed
to put it into their products, baby’s clothing and underwear boasted of its
hygienic value at the turn of the twentieth century, and watches painted
with it were readable in the dark. Finally it was identified as deadly and
banned from consumer goods, but factory workers who made the products,
mainly women, experienced radium poisoning which attacked the bones. Their
teeth fell out, jaws collapsed, until eventually death provided relief.

Green

Arsenic, invented by chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1775, was
originally used to dye garments a vivid green. However for those who worked
with it, the whites of their eyes turned the same shade, they vomited the
color and eventually stopped breathing. Women avoided green until in 1863
when French empress Eugénie stepped out in a safe version of the hue
causing a new stampede for green.

Corsets

The Kardashians’ controversial promotion of waist trimmers to achieve
the ideal hourglass silhouette is nothing new. In the late sixteenth
century corsets constructed with whalebone and metal were introduced to
cinch women’s waists. The item also crushed fanatics’ lungs and deformed
the developing bones of younger wearers.

On fire

Flannel’s association with cosiness and good health made it hugely
desirable but economically prohibitive for most late Victorians, so
‘flannelette’ was created for the masses. Unfortunately it could be reduced
to ash in exactly one minute and as children’s beds tended to be close to
fireplaces, it was recorded that in England during one five-year period,
1,816 deaths occurred, three quarters of which were girls who wore looser
garments than boys which therefore caught fire fastest.

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Choker

A 2016 study in India drew attention to Long Scarf Syndrome, and the
danger of six-foot-long scarves known as chunnis, popular in South
Asia, getting caught in wheels of vehicles such as motorbikes. But this
recalls the 1927 death of American dancer Isadora Duncan whose scarf which
had been wrapped around her neck as she sped off in a convertible strangled
her.

Hobbled

The hobble skirt was invented when the first American woman to fly in a
plane, Edith Berg, realized her skirt would fly up in her face and so tied
it at the knee with a piece of rope. It inspired a trend––and even the
iconic shape of the Coca Cola bottle––but women wearing the so-called “speed
limit skirt” could suddenly fly but not walk. A shackled attendee at a
Paris horse race in 1910 was trampled by a horse when her hobble skirt
prevented her from moving out of the way in time.

Fashion editor Jackie Mallon is also an educator and author of Silk
for the Feed Dogs, a novel set in the international fashion
industry.

Images by Wikimedia Commons: Two skeletons dressed as lady and
gentleman. Etching, 1862. Lettering: “The Arsenic Waltz” “The new Dance of
Death. (Dedicated to the Green Wreath and Dress-Mongers.)”Iconographic
Collections, Wellcome Images Library reference: ICV No 42815, Photo number:
V0042226, http://catalogue.wellcomelibrary.org/record=b1194600; A postcard
(circa 1911) depicting a man and a women dressed in the fashion of the era,
uploaded to Wikimedia 6 November, 2004, by Tragicsomething, author
Uncredited, currently Infrogmation, 8 June 2008. Ornamental Japanese hair
pin, tortoiseshell, Edo or Taishō, Honolulu Museum of Art, author Hiart.

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